Wednesday, 7 December 2016



Risk factors for heart disease

  • Fryar CD, Chen T, Li X. Prevalence of Uncontrolled Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: United States, 1999–2010. NCHS Data Brief, No. 103. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Dept of Health and Human Services; 2012.
  • Wilson PWF, D'Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H and Kannel WB. (1998) Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 97:1837-47.
  • Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. (2004) Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART STUDY). Lancet. 364: 937-52.
  • Lim SS, Vos T, Flaxman AD, Danaei G, Shibuya K, Adair-Rohani H et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet, 2012; 380(9859):2224-2260.
  • Assman G, Schulte H and Cullen P. (1997) New and classical risk factors- the Munster heart study (PROCAM). Eur J Med Res. 2: 237-242.
  • Assman G, Cullen P, Schulte H and Cullen P. (1998) The Munster heart study (PROCAM). Results of follow-up at 8 years. Eur Heart J. 19(suppl A): A2-A11.
  • Bahl VK, Prabhakaran D and Karthikeyan G. (2001) Coronary Artery Disease in Indians. Indian Heart J. 53: 707-713.
  • Anderson KM, Wilson PW, and Odell PM. (1991) An updated coronary risk profile. Circulation. 83: 356.
Level of heart disease risk based on the number of risk factors
Exposure to traffic-related air pollution


  • Wardlaw GM and Kessel MW. (2002) Perspectives in Nutrition. 5th Edition. New York. Mc Graw hill. P: 167-169.
  • Maliye C, Kaur S and Garg BS. (2006) Relationship of anthropometric indicators with blood pressure levels in rural Wardha. Indian J Med Res. 123(5): 657-64.
  • Gotto A and Pownall H. (2003) Manual of Lipid disorders. 3rd Edition. Lippincotts Williams and Wilkins Publishing, Philadelphia, USA. 

High blood pressure

  • Rapsomaniki E, Timmis A, George J, et al. Blood pressure and incidence of twelve cardiovascular diseases: lifetime risks, healthy life-years lost, and age-specific associations in 1·25 million people. Lancet. 2014 May;383(9932):1899-911.
  • Enas E.A., Hancy Chennikkara Pazhoor MD, Arun Kuruvila MBBS, Krishnaswami Vijayaraghavan MD F. Intensive Statin Therapy for Indians:Part I Benefits. Indian Heart J 2011; 63: 211-227;
  • Enas E.A., Hancy Chennikkara Pazhoor MD, Arun Kuruvila MBBS, Krishnaswami Vijayaraghavan MD F. Intensive Statin Therapy for Indians:Part I Benefits. Indian Heart J 2011; 63: 211-227
  • Grover SA, Kaouache M, Joseph L, Barter P, Davignon J. Evaluating the incremental benefits of raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels during lipid therapy after adjustment for the reductions in other blood lipid levels. Arch Intern Med. Oct 26 2009;169(19):1775-1780.



Heart disease statistics

  • 'Heart attacks kill 13 persons per minute' Dec 7 2008. minute/articleshow/3805384.cms
  • Padmavati S. Manpower Requirements for Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in India in the 21stCentury. Cardiology Today. 2011;15(4).
  • Mrinal Kanti Das, Soumitra Kumar, Pradip Kumar Deb, and Sundeep Mishra. History of Cardiology in India.Indian Heart J. 2015 Mar-Apr; 67(2): 163–169.
  • Medical Manpower in India: An overview. S & T Human Resources. India, Science and Technology; 2008.
  • Fye WB. Cardiology’s workforce shortage: implications for patient care and research. Circulation. 2004;109(7):813-6.
  • Williams JL. Projecting the general cardiology workforce shortage. Am Heart Hosp J. 2007;5(4):203-9.
  • Anthony N. DeMaria. Cardiology in India, J. Am. Coll. Cardiol; 2010; 56;678-679.
  • Cardiological Society of India, Cardiology Update 2014. The Health Sciences Publisher, First edition 2015. ISBN 978-93-5152-618-6. Cardiological Society of India
  • Dr.A. Kader Sahib Ashraf, Consultant and Interventional Cardiologist, Apollo Hospital, Tiruchi. Attention young India, take care of your heart. THE HINDU; Dec 15, 2013.
  • As quoted by Anil Bansal, chief cardiologist at Gurgaon's Columbia Asia Hospital on World Heart Day 2014: Is India Staring at a Heart Disease Epidemic? September 29, 2014
  • Rao M, Xavier D, Devi P, Sigamani A, Faruqui A, Gupta R, Kerkar P, Jain RK, Joshi R, Chidambaram N, Rao DS, Thanikachalam S, Iyengar SS, Verghese K, Mohan V, Pais P. Prevalence, treatments and outcomes of coronary artery disease in Indians: A systematic review. Indian Heart J. 2015 Jul-Aug;67(4):302-10.
  • Alexander T, Mehta S, Mullasari A and Nallamothu BK. Systems of care for ST-elevation myocardial infarction in India: is it time? Heart. 2012 Jan;98(1):15-7.

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